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Wetland puddle, Male river catchment, Bo region, Sierra Leone

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Sierra Leone, Bo state, Mano, southern province

In the southern part of Sierra Leone, the climate is generally hot and humid. This lowland region has several networks of rivers and streams that frequently flow out of their basin, due to periodic flooding commonly peaking from April to May and July to September.

The huge difference in the fallen rain (difference between July to October in 2022 was ca. 400mm) results are flooded areas and marshlands. After the rivers and streams get flooded, the recending water create pools where inhabitants continue their life waiting for the next flood. This pools have colored water cause of the tannins from botanicals.

In these regions we can make difference between closed canopy and open capony streams, puddle systems. In open canopy parts you can find more flora and fauna, because of the hiding places provided by plants. The closed canopy parts have accumulated wood and leafy debris which are darker habitat. In both habitats the submerged terrestrial vegetation are frequent.

Submitted by
Péter Rózsahegyi
Approved by
Ad Konings & Anton Lamboj
GPS
7.5440345, -11.8682270
Geographical region
Western Africa
Drainage Basin
Sewa river
River catchment
Male river
Water body type
Stream
Water body name
Valley swamp, with constantly running streams and isolated water pools
Water body part
Marsh land
Water body course
Upper course
Water body: tributary of
River
Tributary name
Unnamed stream

Videos above and below water

Water Chemistry

Water information

Water type
Fresh water
Water color
Clear water
Water transparency
High
Concentration of sediments
High
Water temperature
24-26 °C
Water flow/curent
Slow

Chemical parameters

pH
6.0
Conductivity
15
GH
70 mg/l
KH
20 mg/l
Dissolved Oxygen
6.2 %

Substrate in nature

Sand
Beige
Pebble/Gravel
Stone
Black
Stone form
Silt/Mud
Brown
Leaves
Adundant
Driftwood
Few
Submerged terrestrial vegetation
Yes

Aquatic Biotope

Date of collecting
May, 2023
Collecting area
Water depth
Air temperature
Sunlight

Environment

Environment
Affected by human activity
Affected by human activity
Agriculture
Agriculture
Advanced
Surrounding area

In the surrounding area there is a little village named Mano and to southeast a lot of agricultural areas, which contribute to high deforestation effect. In this region every edge of streams and rivers you can find wetland vegetation including trees, palms and lower class plants.

Underwater landscape

The underwater landscape is very variable, because of the open canopy, closed canopy, and waterpond systems. In the open canopy parts which are more brighter spots, you can find more species of aquatic plants. There are less botanical sediments than in the closed canopy areas and also the bottom is less visible.

When you check closed canopy areas, you can see more driftwoods and less plants with less color.

The third one is the waterpond systems which do not have connection with main streams and the water is darker cause of the leaf litter. In this habitat there are more driftwoods and botanicals, what makes the bottom insivible.

Fishlist:

  • Epiplatys annulatus (Nothobranchiidae)
  • Pelvicachromis roloffi (Cichlidae)
  • Anomalochromis thomasi (Cichlidae)
  • Rubricatochromis lifalili (Cichlidae)
  • Lepidarchus adonis (Alestidae)
  • Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae)
  • Scriptaphyosemion chaytori (Nothobranchiidae)
  • Callopanchax occidentalis (Nothobranchiidae)
  • Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae)
  • Nothobranchius fuscotaeniatus (Nothobranchiidae)
  • Epiplatys barmoiensis (Nothobranchiidae)
  • Neolebias unifasciatus (Distichodontidae)
  • Petrocephalus levequei (Mormyridae)
  • Brienomyrus brachyistius (Mormyridae)
  • Malapterurus barbatus (Malapteruridae)
  • Brycinus longipinnis (Alestidae)
  • Hemichromis fasciatus (Cichlidae)

Aquatic plants:

  • Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae)
  • Bolbitis heudelotii (Dryopteridaceae)
  • Limnophila sessiliflora (Plantaginaceae)

Wetland plants:

  • Commelina africana (Commelinaceae)
  • Phoenix reclinata (Arecaceae)
  • Sclerosperma mannii (Arecaceae)
  • Drymaria cordata (Caryophyllaceae)
  • Dracaena surculosa (Asparagaceae)
Threats to ecology

Riparian zone

Trees near the aquatic habitat
Many -