Intermediate Rocky Habitat, Kapumfi, Tanganyika, Zambia

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Zambia, Kaputa, Kapumfi Village

Tanganyika is known as an ancient rift valley lake. It keeps the greatest volume of water in Africa and keeps %17 of the surface of the world freshwater supply. Lake is also famous for physical beauty of the shoreline. Four national parks exist around the lake. Two seasons (wet and dry) can be seen in the region. Though the lake has three inflows and one outflow, precipitation and evaporation are the main ways for changing the lake’s water. High biodiversity is the most remarkable feature of the lake. It is the third most species-rich lake after lakes Malawi and Victoria. It harbours 250 cichlid species (%98 endemic), 75 non-cichlid (%60 endemic) and home for a great number of invertebrates. The most interesting side of the BIN is the inclination rate of sand. Formation of BIN shows that tectonic movements in Tanganyika created unique habitats for species to adapt and evolve. Ref (Bib.1-2 Sit.1-10,17)

Submitted by
Fatih Özdemir
Approved by
Ad Konings & Michael Salter
-8.2600279, 30.5815830
Geographical region
Eastern Africa
Drainage Basin
River catchment
Water body type
Water body name
Water body part
Water body course
Water body: tributary of
Tributary name

Videos above and below water

Water Chemistry

Water information

Water type
Fresh water
Water color
Clear water
Water transparency
Concentration of sediments
Water temperature
27,5 °C
Water flow/curent

Chemical parameters

12 mg/l
20 mg/l
Dissolved Oxygen
90 %

Substrate in nature

Stone form
Submerged terrestrial vegetation

Aquatic Biotope

Date of collecting
May 2015
Collecting area
Open water
Water depth
over 2,0m
Air temperature
28 °C
Full sun


Human settlements
Human settlements
Surrounding area

BIN is situated near (350-450 meters) to the shore of Kapumfi Village in Zambia. There is a narrow plain shoreline, and then hills covered with trees start to rise. In narrow shoreline wherever available, village houses are built. The shoreline is stony and rocky. Hill parts are covered with lush plants and trees. There is a high inclination rate in the area. Residents are meeting their needs for food and income mostly with fishery from the lake. Sustainable agriculture and husbandry are not developed in the area. Residents utilize from agriculture and husbandry (goats and chickens) only for family needs. Large scale industrial facilities are not found in the region. Ref (Bib.2,Sit.10-13,17)

Underwater landscape

Underwater habitat of BIN is in 15 meters depth. Habitat is an intermediate rocky habitat which meeting with sand in the bottom and, It gives the impression as if a large rock stream is flowing on top of the sand. Rock piles consist of roundish grey/white various sized rocks and the largest ones are not bigger than one meter. Rock piles are steep towards the surface of the water. Sand is beige coloured thin mixed sand in the bottom. Rocks are buried partly to sand in the bottom. Algae is seen on rocks as a thin layer and sediment is found as dust on the rocks in the upper part of rock piles. Sessile algae firm as biofilms over rocks are covered with sand in the bottom. There is a gradual and high inclination which starts from the top of rock piles and goes down to sandy bottoms. This makes the habitat looks scenic and interesting. Rock piles and connections points of rocks with sand create lots of shelters for species. Habitat is in the range of heavily populated depths of intermediate habitats. Mass existence of floating plankton invites the flocks of fish to feed in this habitat. Mostly for carnivore and omnivore species exist in the habitat. Water visibility is medium. The colour of the water is light blue. Ref (Bib.1,Sit.10,13,17)


  • Altolamprologus calvus (Poll, 1978)
  • native Aulonocranus dewindti (Boulenger, 1899)
  • undefined Cyprichromis sp. ‘leptosoma jumbo’
  • native Eretmodus cyanostictus (Boulenger, 1898)
  • undefined ex Gnathochromis pfefferi (Boulenger, 1898)
  • undefined ex Lamprologus brevis (Boulenger, 1899)
  • native (Konings, 1998) ex Lamprologus multifasciatus (Boulenger, 1906)
  • undefined ex Lamprologus ocellatus (Steindachner, 1909)
  • native (Konings, 1998) ex Lamprologus sp. ‘Ornatipinnis zambia’
  • undefined Grammatotria lemairii (Boulenger, 1899)
  • native Interochromis loocki (Poll, 1949)
  • undefined Julidochromis dickfeldi (Staeck, 1975)
  • native Julidochromis regani (Poll, 1942)
  • undefined Lepidiolamprologus elongatus (Boulenger, 1898)
  • undefined Lepidiolamprologus sp. ‘meeli southeast’
  • undefined Neolamprologus crassus (Brichard, 1989)
  • native Neolamprologus mustax (Poll, 1978)
  • undefined Neolamprologus obscurus (Poll, 1978)
  • native Neolamprologus pulcher (Trewavas & Poll, 1972)
  • undefined Neolamprologus sexfasciatus (Trewavas & Poll, 1952)
  • undefined Neolamprologus tetracanthus (Boulenger, 1899)
  • undefined Ophthalmotilapia nasuta (Poll & Matthes, 1962)
  • native Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898)
  • undefined Paracyprichromis brieni (Poll, 1981)
  • native Petrochromis famula (Matthes & Trewavas, 1960)
  • native Petrochromis fasciolatus (Boulenger, 1914)
  • native Petrochromis horii (Takahashi & Koblmüller, 2014)
  • undefined Petrochromis polyodon (Boulenger, 1898)
  • undefined Petrochromis trewavasae (Poll, 1948)
  • native Pseudosimochromis babaulti (Pellegrin, 1927)
  • undefined Pseudosimochromis curvifrons (Poll, 1942)
  • undefined Simochromis diagramma (Günther, 1893)
  • undefined Telmatochromis temporalis (Boulenger, 1898)
  • undefined Telmatochromis vittatus (Boulenger, 1898)
  • undefined Tropheus sp. ‘red’
  • native Xenotilapia flavipinnis (Poll, 1985)
  • undefined Xenotilapia papilio (Büscher, 1990)
  • undefined Xenotilapia spilopterus (Poll & Stewart, 1975)
Threats to ecology

Large agricultural areas or industrial facilities are not found in the surrounding area of BIN, so there is no danger of pollution or sedimentation. However, again danger is created by human. Residents are highly depended on fish for protein and making money. This situation causes residents to catch fish even with mosquito nets and even 2-3 cm length fish are sold in markets. Unless residents are educated for meeting their needs (money and food) with sustainable agriculture and husbandry, overfishing can break the balance of underwater life and diminish biodiversity in future. Another problem is global warming over habitat like all around the world. Luckily solutions for preventing global warning are known by everyone, but unfortunately, nothing is done by anyone. Ref (Bib.2, Sit. 14,15,17)

Riparian zone

Trees near the aquatic habitat
Many - Not identified

Comment by the expert

Ad Konings:

Crieria 2: At 15 m there are no Eretmodus, P. trewavasae, P. polyodon, P. famula, Ps. babaulti, or Ps. curvifrons.
Criteria 3: GH is about 200 mg/L (not 12 mg/L) and KH is about 300 mg/L (not 20 mg/L). Perhaps confusion with degrees…

Michael Salter: Some species listed and water parameters are very incorrect.