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#4965 Bucephalandra biotope in Sekadau, West Kalimantan

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Indonesia, Sekadau, West Kalimantan

This research has been done in a stream originating in the rainforest of Simerah Putih Waterfall, Sekadau, West Kalimantan, which has slow to moderate water flow. The soil is oxysol or sand that lacks nutrients but is always available.

The temperature 20-28°C.
Transparent water.
pH 6.5 in rain season, more acid in dry season until pH 5.0.
KH-GH 1.0-2.0
TDS 15-22 ppm

Submitted by
Husni Pramudita
GPS
-0.1817995, 110.9306335
Geographical region
Southeastern Asia
Drainage Basin
Semerah Putih
River catchment
Semerah Putih
Water body type
Stream
Water body name
Semerah Putih
Water body part
Waterfall
Water body course
Lower course
Water body: tributary of
Stream
Tributary name
Semerah Putih

Videos above and below water

Water Chemistry

Water information

Water type
Fresh water
Water color
Mixed water
Water transparency
Medium
Concentration of sediments
Medium
Water temperature
20-28 °C
Water flow/curent
Strong

Chemical parameters

pH
6.5
Conductivity
3
GH
1 mg/l
KH
2 mg/l
Dissolved Oxygen
2.98 %

Substrate in nature

Sand
Beige
Pebble/Gravel
Mixed
Stone
Black
Stone form
Irregular
Silt/Mud
Beige
Leaves
Many
Driftwood
Many
Submerged terrestrial vegetation
Yes

Aquatic Biotope

Date of collecting
August 10th, 2011
Collecting area
River bank
Water depth
0,5m
Air temperature
20 °C
Sunlight
Partial shade

Environment

Environment
Affected by human activity
Affected by human activity
Deforestation
Deforestation
Initial
Surrounding area

A slow to medium streams originating in the rainforest of Sekadau, West Kalimantan (Borneo), where Bucephalandra is most common.

Underwater landscape

The source of the stream is a small waterfall in the hills of Sekadau Hulu. The bottom gravel is brownish. Bucephalandra prefers to grow on land or semi-submersed, although it is also commonly found in water. If water is too hard, the leaves tend to have holes. The water course of the small stream is also filled with fallen leaves, dark stones, driftwood.

Threats to ecology

Large-scale exploration of Bucephalandra for aquascaping decorations in the country or for export abroad. This plant is endemic only to the island of Kalimantan, so the prices become expensive.

On the other hand this plant requires a very long time to propagate in Nature: it needs a long dry season; according to some reliable sources it even requires El Nino and La Nina storms for some species to propagate.

Besides that, what usually happens is land clearing for oil palm cultivation. There is no law protecting the areas with Bucephalandra in Indonesia.

Riparian zone

Trees near the aquatic habitat
Many -